Anatomy of Flowers

Most flowers consist of four sets of floral parts: sepals, petals, stamens and carpels. These parts are often arranged spirally on a more or less elongated stalk.

Sets of floral parts:

  • The outermost parts of the flowers are the sepalsq1
  • The petals are next to the sepals
  • Within the corolla are the stamens.
  • The centermost parts of the flowers are the carpel

Functions of floral parts

  • The sepals:
    • Constructing the calyx
    • Protecting the developing flower bud
  • The petals:
    • Making the flower difference from the green leaves
    • Attracting insects or other animals
  • The stamens consist of the filament and the anther. The pollen grains, the male gametophytes, was formed within the anther and released through slits or pores in the anther when ripe.
    • Producing the male gametophytesq
  • The carpels consist of a stigma, a stalk and a ovary. The ovary has one or more ovules. An ovule enclose a female gametophyte or embryo sac, containing a single egg cell.
    • Producing the female gametophytes
    • After fertilizing, the ovule develops into a seed and the ovary into a fruit

There are two kinds of flowers: perfect flower and imperfect flower

  • Perfect flower contains both stamens and carpels.
  • Imperfect flower contains only stamens (staminate) or carpels (carpellate)
    • The plant species in which the male flower and the female flower are present on the same plant are monoecious (“one house”)
    • The plant species in which the male and the female flowers are on separate plants are dioecious (“two houses”).

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